Carduus lanatus, Seed dormancy, Seed longevity
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RESEARCH in the Geraldton area has indicated that seeds of the saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) spread their germination over some seven years but most germinate in the first two years.
Factors influencing the rate of germination and the survival of seeds are the depth of burial and the presence of termites in the soil.
Quinlivan, B J. and Pierce, J. R.
"Dormancy and life span of saffron thistle seeds,"
Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4: Vol. 10:
4, Article 8.
Available at: https://library.dpird.wa.gov.au/journal_agriculture4/vol10/iss4/8