Evaluating the double knockdown technique: sequence, application interval, and annual ryegrass growth stage

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Australian Journal of Agricultural Reserach


Applying glyphosate followed by a mixture of paraquat + diquat in the same season for pre-planting weed control may reduce the risk of developing resistance to either herbicide. Glasshouse and field experiments at Merredin and Beverly, Western Australia, were conducted over 2 seasons to determine the best herbicide application sequence, growth stage of annual ryegrass at which to apply the 2 herbicides, and application time and interval to be allowed between applications for optimum control of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.). Annual ryegrass plants were treated at 3 growth stages with either glyphosate 540 g a.i./ha alone, paraquat + diquat 250 g a.i./ha alone, glyphosate followed by paraquat + diquat 250 g a.i./ha, or paraquat + diquat 250 g a.i./ha followed by glyphosate 540 g a.i./ha (the double knockdown treatment). The herbicides were applied at different times of the day, with varied intervals between herbicides when applied in sequence. The glasshouse experiment showed that herbicides in sequence more effectively killed annual ryegrass plants at the 3–6-leaf stage than a single application of either herbicide. Field experiments showed that applying glyphosate followed by paraquat + diquat provided 98–100% control of annual ryegrass plants when applied at the 3- or 6-leaf stage in 2002 and at all 3 growth stages in 2003. Generally, the sequence of paraquat + diquat followed by glyphosate was less effective than the reverse sequence, although the difference was not large. Averaged over 2 seasons, herbicides in sequence were most effective when the first herbicide was applied at the 3- or 6-leaf stage of annual ryegrass. An interval of 2–10 days between applications of herbicides was more effective than 1 day or less. The application time did not significantly affect the efficacy of double knockdown herbicides on annual ryegrass plants under field conditions.