Western Australia, Weeds, Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) Scop.
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A NUMBER of thistles, including Canada, Berkheya and saffron have been dealt with in previous articles. The first two are perennials, living for an indefinite period, while saffron thistle completes its life cycle in one year. Spear thistle, the subject of this article, is intermediate, usually being a biennial. During the first year it produces a rosette of large, very spiny leaves, the flowers and seeds being formed during the second season of growth.
Meadly, G.R W.
"Weeds of Western Australia - Spear thistle (Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) Scop.),"
Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 3: Vol. 8:
1, Article 9.
Available at: https://library.dpird.wa.gov.au/journal_agriculture3/vol8/iss1/9